Archaeological Collection of Lviv Historical Museum
The largest fund collections of Lviv Historical Museum are the collections “Archaeology” and “Kyiv Rus”.
The collection “Archaeology” has 55,700 units. Geography of their origin covers a huge territory from Indo-China, ancient Rome and Greece, Egypt, Babylon and Syria to modern Poland and Ukraine.
It is formed on the basis of archaeological collections from the former Museum of Shevchenko Scientific Society, Museum of Dzieduszycki, Museum of Princes Lubomirski, the People's Houses, Museum of Stauropegic Institute, from the private collections, in fact the collections of Historical Museum of Lviv.
Chronological limits of the collection are extremely wide: from the Stone Age to the monuments of Kyiv Rus period. A wonderful collection of Stone Age monuments, collected in France, among which there are classic biface that are over 500 thousand years, was given to the museum by F.Vovk, an outstanding Ukrainian anthropologist, ethnographer, archeologist.
Very valuable museum exhibit is a bone pipe from the Stone Age.
The pipe made of horn, that is 20 thousand years, is one of the oldest musical instruments.
Copper and Stone Age (eneolith, 4th – 3th millennium BC) in the collection “Archaeology” is represented by three cultures: Trypillian, of Funnel Beaker and Globular Amphora.
The biggest is a collection of Trypillian culture. This collection represents the materials from the settlement near the village of Koshylivtsi in Ternopil region, which was studied by K. Hadachek.
Very interesting part of LHM archaeological collection is formed by the treasures. Yet, the museum funds keep the bronze treasure found accidentally in 1935 near the village of Grushka, Ivano-Frankivsk region, buried about three thousand years ago. It numbers 142 items: sickles, axes, spears and daggers edges, bracelets, pins, bronze ingots, etc.
Another treasure is so-called “Myhalkivsky” accidentally found near the village of Myhalkiva, Ternopil region at the end of the 19th century.
The treasure belonged to the representative of the tribe elite of Thracian hallstatt culture and was buried in the 7th century BC. The total weight of the decorations of gold is 7.5 kg. Most of the treasures were bought by the grafs Dzieduszycki, who ordered for their museum the galvanic copy of gold jewelry. Where the treasure is itself is unknown, that’s why the galvanic copy are of extraordinary value.
Collection of Vysotska culture monuments numbers 888 units. This is various pottery, decorations of bronze, stone, bone and iron tools.
At the collection of “Archaeology” there is a large number of monuments of Iron period, so called “Scythian Period” (7th – 3th BC).
A separate group is formed by the monuments from the 1st half of the 1st thousand BC.
At LHM funds the materials of five tribes who lived in Ukraine are represented, they are the tribes of Lypytsk, Psheworsk, Velbarsk, Carpathian hills and Chernyahivska cultures.
At the LHM funds there is a large collection of ancient monuments (over 200 units).
In the collection the one can find a great deal of red lacquer Roman and Greek dishes, clay and bronze lamps, glass and bronze dishes, decorations from Rome, Greece, Egypt, Palestine, Babylonia, Syria.
Fund collection “Kyiv Rus” numbers 45,700 units and includes the exhibits from 160 different places. Major contribution to the formation of this collection was made by the scientists of Shevchenko Scientific Society under the guidance of Ya. Pasternak. Special attention should be paid to the materials from archaeological excavations of 1932-1940 in Galych (now the village of Krylos, Ivano-Frankivsk region.). This is variety of tools, dishes, decorations of bronze, silver, various casting molds of stone, sacred things (icons, crosses), and a gold earring weighing 11.7 g of Byzantine production, which has no analogues in Ukraine. This type of jewelry was worn by rich women in the 11th – 13th centuries.
Among the researches materials of a chronicle of Plisensk Ya. Pasternak considered the bone plate depicting ancient Rus warrior of 11th – 12th centuries in chainmail with a helmet on his head to be his most valuable discovery of cultural-historical and artistic side. In 1997 a gold kolt and a plate were transferred to LHM funds, according to the covenant of Ya. Pasternak, by Lidiya Paliy - a Canadian citizen
A separate group (over 150 exhibits) is formed by the monuments, made of silver and gold, which confirm the high level of Galician jewelers’ skill in princely times. We distinguish so-called “Molotiv Treasure” found in Lviv in 1896 at the village of Demydiv, Lviv region and transferred to LHM from the Museum of Stauropegic Institute. This is in particular temporal rings, plate and spiral armbands bracelets. Interesting are silver treasures from Zbarazh (Ternopil region) and Krylos (Ivano-Frankivsk region). The pearl of the collection is a stamped plate bracelet found near the village of Vyktorovo, Ivano-Frankivsk region.
Museum collection of archaeological exhibits is extremely rich and interesting.
This is invaluable source for the study of history, art and culture of tribes and nations inhabiting the territory of Ukraine in ancient times.